Friday, 24 August 2012

NEUTERING.

THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF NEUTERING. 

The most fundamental of all changes that owners make to their dog is to decide
whether or not the dog or bitch will breed. Both dogs and bitches are born
genetically programmed to reproduce their genes, and thus provide the next
generation. Owners may choose to do this by ensuring that the dog is secure
within their home and garden so that he cannot go in search of a mate, or that the
bitch is confined to the house or exercised on a lead while she is in season twice a
year. Or they may decide the safest method of prevention is to have the dog
castrated or the bitch spayed. This surgery is permanent and irreversible, and it
does have benefits other than preventing unwanted puppies.
Male puppies receive a surge of the male hormone testosterone shortly before birth
which induces their male outlook on life. As they reach maturity testosterone will
again come on stream, and the dog will begin to actively seek bitches with which
to mate. Bitch puppies receive a surge of the female hormone oestrogen when
they reach puberty, and from then on they will come into season on roughly a six
monthly cycle. While in season they will at some point be willing to accept a
mate, usually 10-12 days after the season begins. Some bitches are so much at the
mercy of their hormones that they may try to escape to satisfy the overwhelming
need to reproduce. This can occur in even very home loving, seemingly devoted
bitches and sometimes catches the owner by surprise. After the surge of oestrogen
subsides, another hormone comes into play. Progesterone is thought to be a
calming influence, sometimes to the point of making the bitch a little depressed
and unlike her usual self for a while.

THE OPERATION ITSELF
Surgical castration involves the complete removal of the dog’s testicles, following a
postoperative check to ensure that the dog is in good general health. The dog is
given a premedicant so that he is relaxed and unafraid, and then a general
anaesthetic is administered. The dog may be sore for a few days, and a painkiller
may be given, but usually there are no complications and the dog will recover so
quickly that the owner may have difficulty in preventing him from running and
jumping before the sutures have been removed.
Bitches undergo a complete ovariohysterectomy which involves the removal of the
ovaries and the uterus. This is a major operation, and a postoperative check will
be carried out before the bitch is booked in for the actual operation. The incision
is usually made in the midline of the bitch’s abdomen, so there will be no obvious
scar once the incision has healed. Sutures are usually removed after about 10
days, and the vet will probably check to ensure all is well in the meantime. As
with male dogs, bitches usually recover very quickly and again it may be necessary
to prevent the bitch being too energetic until the sutures are removed.

THE EFFECTS
Castration has multiple effects. It renders the dog unable to breed, but in
addition castration is often recommended for male dogs that are showing
aggression towards other dogs or people. It can be useful in curing frequent
territorial marking, and it may have a calming effect on those dogs who attempt to
mount other dogs, legs and inanimate objects. Castration has a good success rate
with curbing aggression, roaming, and inappropriate mounting, but it is not a
foregone conclusion that this will be the case. Owners quite often report a very
quick improvement in aggressive behaviour. Others may find that it is some weeks
or even months before the dog is calmer. Although it is not one hundred percent
successful in curing aggression, it does have the valuable effect of making the dog
more biddable, and therefore more easily trained into acceptable behaviour.
Castration may be carried out at any age.
Spaying a bitch is the certain way of ensuring that she does not produce unwanted
puppies. It also means that the owner does not have to cope with the twice
yearly discharge when she comes into season, and deal with the unwanted
attentions of male dogs attracted to her scent. Spaying is not recognised as
having any appreciable effect on aggressive behaviour, but it does mean that the
bitch will not suffer phantom pregnancies or false seasons. Some veterinary
surgeons now recommend spaying before a bitch has had a season at all, so that
she never comes under the influence of oestrogen and progesterone. Others will
prefer to wait until she has had one season, and will operate mid way between that
season and the date of the next anticipated one. Surgery can be carried out on any
age bitch subject of course to her general health and ability to cope with an
anaesthetic and major surgery.
In addition to preventing the dog siring unwanted litters, and its effects on male
behaviour, neutering also has health benefits. There is a greatly reduced risk of
the dog suffering testicular or prostate cancer. He is much less likely to be
involved in a fight, and is less likely to roam whereby he might be involved in a
road accident. Contrary to what some owners believe, the operation will not
change the dog’s character. It will not make him effeminate, but does as already
discussed often change the dog that has aggressive tendencies for the better, and
make him much more comfortable to live with.
A spayed bitch is much less likely to suffer mammary tumours, false pregnancies,
and will not suffer pyometra (a serious infection of the uterus which is life
threatening and which usually requires urgent surgery if the bitch is to be saved).
She will also avoid the attentions of male dogs which some bitches find stressful
when they are not at the point of their season when they will accept a dog.
Spaying a bitch does not change her character, other than to negate the effects of
the two hormones discussed which do make some bitches depressed and snappy
while under their influence. Some owners will say that their bitch became even
more home loving after spaying, but this may be a perceived view rather than
factual.
Neither dogs nor bitches automatically become fat after neutering. In some dogs
their metabolic rate may change a little, but if the owner notes that the dog is
gaining weight, it is quite simple to control this by reducing the amount of food
offered. "Guide Dogs, Hearing Dogs for Deaf People, Support Dogs, and Dogs for the
Disabled are routinely neutered - they are not overweight or lethargic, and their
temperament which is of paramount importance does not change"..........Animal care College.

See you soon..

Wednesday, 22 August 2012

MAN's BEST FRIEND?

Government ministers are planing a reform of the law regarding dangerous dogs in the UK. But how long has the government been trying to tackle this problem? It may surprise you to know that dog law has existed since the Roman times. The ancient Lex Pesolania was probably the first edition of the Dangerous Dog Act., which made owners responsible for any anti social behavior of their dogs.
Dogs featured greatly in early Roman lives, often used as weapons of war and kept as pets. In the third century anti social dog behavior was such a big problem that a law was passed to make owners responsible for any injuries suffered or damage caused as a result of a dog attack. According to the late historian and liberal MP John Roby "if a dog was in a square or public road and not tied up in the daytime and did any mischief, the owner was liable".
The first fines for anti social dog behavior came about under Alfred the Great. The law dated back to 849 AD, said "If a dog tear trouser or bite a man, for the first misdeed let six shillings be paid." Fines multiplied if there were repeat offences. 
In 1839 the Metropolitan Police Act said, "Victorian Londoners could be fined up to 40 shillings if they let their dog loose in any thoroughfare or public place". "Anyone with an unmuzzled ferocious dog that they allowed to attack or put in fear any person, horse, or other animal was liable". Elsewhere in England, owners faced a 40 shilling fine or two weeks in prison under the Town Police Clauses Act of 1847, if their dog was deemed to be dangerous and not on a lead. The law was extended to "every person in every street". The power to sieze a dog was given to authorities almost quarter of a century later.
In 1871 the Dogs Act was created.
How has the rest of the world dealt with this issue?
Several states have considered banning specific dog breeds since the formation of the Dangerous dog act of 1991. The RSCPA reported that European and world governments introduced legislation as a direct result of media pressure following a spate of fatal dog attacks in the UK.
Vancouver, Canada and Belgium decided banning specific breeds would be ineffective. Do they know something we dont? A review of Dutch dog laws found their act failed to control the banned types or reduce the numbers of attacks on humans. One country however carried out a study and found that their legislation had been effective. Cutting the number of reported bite incidents on a regular basis. In France in 2000 a new law and a fine of £10,000 on owners of un-nuetered pit bull type dogs and other banned breeds was introduced.
Some facts: Dog attacks are on the rise, The number of people convicted for dangerous dog offences rose almost 40% between 2009 and 2010.
There are an estimated 5000 dog attacks on BT, Royal Mail and Parcel Force staff in England every year. Dog related hospital admissions have more than doubled from 2915 in 1997 to 6118 in 2010. Dog attacks alone have cost the NHS £3.3 million in 2009 in treatment costs.
Clearly this is a very very old problem that is not about to go away. Creating laws which ban specific breeds or meet out punitive measures does not address the problem at its grass roots. It merely closes the kennel door after the dog has bolted. Picking on specific breeds is tantamount to racism. Any dog in the wrong hands not properly socialised is a potential biter. The only way to eradicate this problem is to make training and socialisation of puppies from an early age compulsory. and it must be undertaken by qualified trainers and training schools. Then and only then will we see an environment where man and dog can live in harmony, unafraid of each other and become again 'Man's best friend'.